Ekofisk tank – an icon set to stay

person by Finn Harald Sandberg, Norwegian Petroleum Museum
After almost 25 years of oil and gas production, the time had come to remove and partially replace some of the Greater Ekofisk facilities. But this major operation called for careful planning.
— From ConocoPhillips' plan for "Tank topsides removal".
© Norsk Oljemuseum

The wide-ranging job of preparing the Ekofisk I cessation project began in 1994, with the plans submitted to the government in October 1999 and various revisions in April 2001.

Particular attention was paid in this context to that concrete giant, the Ekofisk tank, and its associated breakwater, and separate proposals for its future were delivered in January 2002.[REMOVE]Fotnote: Proposition no 51 (2001-2002) to the Storting, Om disponering av Ekofisk-tanken med beskyttelsesvegg.

Innsynkning av havbunnen blir avdekket, historie,
Ekofisktanken 1975. Foto: ConocoPhillips/Norsk Oljemuseum

Ekofisk 2/4 T had been installed on the field in 1973. It was originally intended to store crude, but that role disappeared when the oil pipeline to Teesside in the UK opened.

The tank has subsequently had various applications, including as the base for process facilities and a treatment plant for produced water.

A breakwater was installed in 1989 to protect the structure against increased wave forces after its freeboard had been reduced by seabed subsidence on Ekofisk.

Various disposal options were identified through a brainstorming process. An extensive programme of technical and scientific studies reduced them to three:

  • tank and breakwater remain standing on the field, but the superstructure is removed and the interior cleaned
  • the superstructure is removed, and tank and breakwater are towed to a suitable site for scuttling in deep water
  • tank and breakwater are brought to land for recycling.

In order to identify the most relevant of these ideas and come up with a recommended solution, the Ekofisk licensees assessed each proposal in relation to a set of criteria.

These were the technical feasibility of the plans, the safety risk involved, their environmental impact, the economics and the impact on society.

It quickly became clear that the technical challenges and financial cost of removing such an installation meant these options would face substantial opposition.

On the other hand, many people questioned whether safety against oil spills could be guaranteed. The environmental organisations were particularly sceptical.

Operator Phillips accordingly carried out a detailed study of the options in a separate impact assessment which took several years to complete.

The conclusion was very clear – leaving behind the concrete tank, its integrated superstructure and the breakwater represented the best option.[REMOVE]Fotnote: Phillips Petroleum, Epoke – Informasjon om sluttdisponering av Ekofisk I, no 10, April 2001.

On behalf of the Phillips group of licensees as well as A/S Norske Shell and Norpipe Oil AS, Phillips submitted a report on 22 October 1999 to the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy.[REMOVE]Fotnote: Phillips Petroleum, Avvikling og disponering av Ekofisk I, Konsekvensutredning, 1999.

The latter presented its recommendations in a separate proposition (Bill) to the Storting (parliament), which approved leaving the tank and breakwater in situ.

Two integrated decks, one above the other, needed be retained in order to stabilise the structure and ensure helicopter access for future inspections.

The tank had to be marked on navigational charts, and signal equipment to safeguard shipping and helicopter traffic to the Ekofisk field had to be installed.[REMOVE]Fotnote: Proposition no 51 (2001-2002) to the Storting, Om disponering av Ekofisk-tanken med beskyttelsesvegg.

A separate study to see whether it would be feasible to refloat the tank had been conducted by RaKon, a specialist in inspection, monitoring and rehabilitation of concrete structures.[REMOVE]Fotnote: RaKon website, accessed 29 March 2019.

This quickly established that the best option was to tie tank and breakwater together and then tow them to land as a unit. Removing the breakwater first meant the tank would have to stand unprotected for a whole winter season.

The structure would very probably suffer damage from tough North Sea storms in this period. It was therefore agreed to look at a “combined” solution using a special “floor” structure to ensure buoyancy during a tow.

A dedicated team of technical experts risk-assessed the operation. Their results were also checked by Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Norway’s most reputable specialist in this field.

These evaluations showed that all the options had a probability of failure with serious consequences which exceeded the acceptable limits set for such possibilities.

DNV also carried out an impact assessment of the three options in terms of their environmental effect, which took seven factors into account.

Two in particular were found to have negative consequences for option 1 compared with removal from the field – lack of resource utilisation of the steel and concrete materials, and the pollution aspect of leaving behind something alien to the site.

However, letting the tank stay on the field was considered advantageous in terms of energy consumption (almost a halving) and emissions to air compared with the removal options.

Together with project execution specialist Asplan Viak in Stavanger, DNV moreover assessed the social consequences of the three main options.

Leaving the structures in place would have little or no influence on fishing or shipping in the area. The cost was also minimal compared with either of the removal proposals.

NOK 2.5-3.5 billion would be needed for both of the latter. Moreover, scuttling in a fjord would be unacceptable to various organisations in several countries around the North Sea basin.[REMOVE]Fotnote: Phillips Petroleum, Epoke – Informasjon om sluttdisponering av Ekofisk I, no 10, April 2001.

Structure and content of the Ekofisk tank and protective wall. Illustration: Eirik Moe

Before a discussion could even begin on removal or not, Phillips had to clarify the actual contents of the storage tank – a job which took three years from 1998 to 2000.

Cores and water samples were taken from several of the cells and annular spaces, and sent continuously to land for analysis. The key question was how clean is clean enough.

Phillips based its answer on guidelines issued by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT), which categorised levels of pollution in five classes.

Class Description Colour code
1 Insignificant – little pollution Blue
2 Moderate pollution Green
3 Marked pollution Yellow
4 Heavily polluted Orange
5 Very heavily polluted Red

This guidance and classification were amended in 2007.

In consultation with the SFT, Phillips chose to set the limit for an acceptable level of pollutants in the bottom sediments at class 2.

Should pollution exceed this limit in certain areas, a special assessment was to be made of whether measures had to be taken and what these should be.

Results from the sampling showed that the concentration of PAH[REMOVE]Fotnote: Polycyclical aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen built up from two or more five- and six-membered rings. and several heavy metals – particularly mercury and zinc – was as high as class 5 in some areas.

According to the analyses, too, volumes of PCBs[REMOVE]Fotnote: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a group of chemical compounds derived from biphenyls, where two or more of the hydrogen atoms in the molecule are replaced by chlorine atoms. which corresponded to class 4 were to be found in the inner and outer annular spaces.[REMOVE]Fotnote: Phillips Petroleum, Epoke – Informasjon om sluttdisponering av Ekofisk I, no 10, April 2001.

The conclusion was that the Ekofisk tank had to be cleaned before it could be allowed to remain on the field, and Phillips launched a study to answer the following questions:

  • how was hydrogen sulphide to be handled?
  • what was the best way to access the cells?
  • what should be done with oil/wax deposits in the cells?
  • would anything need to be done with the internal walls in the cells?
  • how should bottom sediments in the cells and annular spaces be treated?
  • how should the water be treated?

The work was done as an internal exercise in three stages, which also drew on information from many different external companies. More than 50 different options were presented in all.

These methods were then assessed in relation to criteria which covered personnel safety, environmental impact, costs, technical feasibility and assessments of public opinion.

After several rounds of consideration, an overall solution was proposed which rested on several possible approaches. These in turn were subject to a detailed technical assessment.

The final step was to rank measures in relation to the specified criteria, which yielded a total solution involving a specific method for each of the main factors in the clean-up.

In the proposed solution, the questions were tackled one by one. Hydrogen sulphide was to be pumped out through manholes in the top of each storage cell, for instance.

Part of the topside equipment had to be removed to access these entry points, while the water in the cells had to be treated to reduce its content of hydrogen sulphide.

This treatment consisted of adding a nitrate blend – a process which was time consuming and also had to be kept under careful control.

når systemene er rengjort og pluggingen ferdigstilt, betegnes innretningen som kald.kald fase
When the systems are cleaned and the plugging completed, the rig is referred to as cold. Illustration: Erik Moe/Norwegian Petroleum Museum

Once the hydrogen sulphide had been reduced to an acceptable level, work could begin to remove the oil/wax deposit at the top of each cell.

The narrowness of the access called for the development of special equipment to handle this job. It had to both clean the ceiling and remove the coating by skimming the water.

Because the tank cells had been filled with only water since the mid-1970s, oil deposited during storage was assumed to have been washed out and replaced with a new biological film.

No technical or chemical solutions were recommended, because this film would probably decay over time without damaging side-effects.

Sediments in the cells and the annular spaces were removed with the aid of remotely-operated sludge suction. While remotely-operated vehicles (ROVs) could operate in the annular spaces, special equipment developed for shutting down and disassembling nuclear power stations was used in the cells.

Water and sludge were sucked up to the deck, where a treatment plant had been installed. This comprised cyclones, separators and filter units.

After removing sludge and hydrocarbons, the water could be recirculated or discharged overboard – providing it was sufficiently clean.

The separated sludge and hydrocarbons were collected in a dedicated tank before being transferred to the Ekofisk 2/4 X platform for injection back into the sub-surface.

Proposition no 51 (2001-2002) was considered by the Storting on 11 June 2002, and the government’s recommendation was unanimously accepted without debate.

ConocoPhillips (as the operator had now become) could thereby start awarding the necessary contracts for preparing the tank and taking away its superstructure.

historie, 2005 – 2013, fjerning og gjennvinning av ekofisk plattformer,
Removal of the Tank's topside. Photo: Kjetil Alsvik/ConocoPhillips

Removing the latter, which weighed just over 24 000 tonnes, was assigned to AF Decom. A scrapping yard on land was ready in February 2005, with offshore work due to begin once the clean-up has been finished.

The tank superstructure was demolished with the aid of excavators fitted with cutters – an approach used for a number of such jobs on land, including the Sola refinery in Tananger.

Structures were cut into pieces and roughly sorted offshore before being placed in containers. These were carried by supply ships to Raunes for final sorting.

Finally, the scrap was shipped to a recycling facility or for possible deposition. The goal of achieving a recycling factor of 97-98 per cent was met.[REMOVE]Fotnote: ConocoPhillips, “Anlegg for landdisponering blir klargjort”, Nordsjø-Pioner,  December 2004.

The demolition job finished on 11 May 2007, when the final consignment of scrap from the steel superstructure was shipped to AF Decom’s facility at Vats north of Stavanger.[REMOVE]Fotnote: ConocoPhillips, “Pionér også i sistevers”, Nordsjø-Pioner, no 3, April 2007.[REMOVE]Fotnote: ConocoPhillips, “Slutt på Ekofisk-tanken”, Nordsjø-Pioner, no 5, June 2007.

Cleaning the tank was carried out in two phases, starting with the storage cells and followed by the extensive job of removing the superstructure.

Cell cleaning began in the summer of 2004 and was completed in the course of a year. Structural demolition then started in the summer of 2005 and took almost two years.

The second cleaning phase, covering the annular spaces, got under way in the second quarter of 2007, and was finished in late 2008.

It was not until the summer of 2009 that the Ekofisk tank was finally declared to be in resting condition – after serving ConocoPhillips and Norway for more than 30 years since 1973.

Published 29. July 2019   •   Updated 10. October 2019
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Base operations

person By Norwegian Petroleum Museum
All the supplies needed to ensure that the offshore platforms can do their job of producing oil and gas pass through the base at Tananger outside Stavanger. Warehouse operation at the base covers five main functions: goods reception, spare parts store, accounting, pipe store and goods dispatch.
— Phillips is about to establish themselfs at the Norsco base,1972 Photo: Norsk fly og flyfoto/Norwegian Petroleum Museum
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Dusavik base, 1966-73

The contract for Phillips’ first supply base in Norway was signed with Stavanger-based tanker company Smedvig Tankrederi on 25 April 1966.

It covered the hire of outdoor storage and quay areas as well as a new combined warehouse and office building which was modest by today’s standards.

Located at Dusavik just outside Stavanger, Phillips ranked as the first tenant at what was to become one of the two big offshore supply bases in the district.

The drilling operations which led to the discovery of Ekofisk were served from Dusavik. While the lease ran until 1981, it only functioned as the main base for the Stavanger area until 1973.

Rapid organisational growth made the premises in Dusavik too small by that year, and additional space was obtained by taking a clearly creative approach.


So Phillips secured premises in a soap factory, a Chinese restaurant and the bar and other areas of Stavanger’s Alstor Hotel. And many of those hired in 1973 are sure to remember that they were interviewed at the city’s Atlantic Hotel.

basevirksomhet, engelsk,
Hotel Atlantic. Photo: Asbjørn Jensen/Norwegian Petroleum Museum

Phillips base, 1973-81

Some activity had been established at the Aker Norsco base in Tananger during 1972, but it was not until the autumn of 1973 that the headquarters for Ekofisk was transferred from Dusavik.

basevirksomhet, 1976, engelsk,
The "H-building" (lower right corner), at Tananger. Photo: Unknown/Norwegian Petroleum Museum

That occurred with the occupation of the H Building at Tananger, where Phillips had signed a lease with the base company the year before.

This covered the hire of outside storage areas, quays, warehousing, a canteen and an office building – a complete supply base. All the buildings were purpose-built.

The lease gave Phillips an option to acquire the whole facility at a later date, which the company duly exercised in the summer of 1979.

To varying degrees since 1973, the operator has needed to lease both warehousing and offices from Aker Norsco – partly in temporary structures and partly in permanent premises.

From 1973 to 1976, exploration operations with the Ocean Viking rig continued to be run from the Dusavik base. The charter then expired, and remaining activities were moved to Tananger.

Lack of space at the latter premises meant that the training department was transferred to Dusavik and remained there until the lease expired in 1981.

Similar shortages meant extra premises had to be leased around Stavanger. This growing problem led to plans being laid from 1978 for a significant expansion at Tananger.

Phillips base since 1981

The new building was gradually occupied from December 1980 and formally opened in August 1981. Once it had been finished, the old H Building was completely refurbished to the same standard.

This expansion marked a significant improvement in working conditions for many employees, and helped to enhance efficiency by gathering much of the organisation under one roof.

The development was originally intended to meet all needs for office space, with the exception of the project department’s requirements.

However, it became clear even before the new building was occupied that this goal would not be reached. But it proved possible by and large to cease hiring space outside Tananger.

Løfteskipet Uglen i aksjon ved Norscobasen i juli 1980. Foto: NOM/Norsk Fly og Flyfoto Løfteskip, Uglen, Norscobasen,1980, phillips, sola, olje, inntekter
The crane barge Uglen in action at the Norsco base in July 1980. Photo: Norsk Fly og Flyfoto/Norwegian Petroleum Museum

To deal with developments in the supply services for Ekofisk, Phillips entered into a contract with Aker Norsco on the construction of a larger and more modern warehouse.

This building and associated offices were occupied in late 1982/early 1983, and were regarded as a model example for the purpose.

The waterflooding project on Ekofisk received a green light in 1983, which created the need for more office space to accommodate the project department.

Since a quick start was important, the new building in Tananger was ready three months after the contract with Aker Norsco had been signed.

Premises utilised by Phillips in the Stavanger area by 1988 comprised 20 000 square metres of offices, 10 000 square metres of storage space and 850 square metres of workshops. In addition came the offices at Munkedamsveien in Oslo.

Another new building opened at the Tananger base in July 1996, which meant the whole workforce was assembled on one site in two connected premises.

While the old offices covered 14 000 square metres, the new seven-storey building has an area of 11 300 square metres and provides 420 additional office spaces.

It also accommodates a 600-square-metre conference centre, as well as a gym and a swimming pool measuring eight by 12.5 metres in the basement.

The Tananger base was sold in July 1996 to Aker Base, including buildings, furniture and fittings, and the deepwater quay.

Activities at the base

The Phillips base at Tanager plays a central role in operating the Greater Ekofisk platforms. All necessary supplies allowing these installations to do their job pass through it.

Warehouse operation at the base covers five main functions: goods reception, spare parts store, accounting, pipe store and goods dispatch.

The spare parts store is managed with the aid of a comprehensive computer system with full information for offshore personnel to log on directly and check availability.

When goods are received at the warehouse, they are marked with a purchase number and all data concerning the order is entered. They are packed out, checked and sent for shipment offshore.

The workshop, located in the same building as goods reception, deals with such jobs as mechanical repair of diesel engines, pumps, valves, heat exchangers and compressors.

It also repairs base equipment, like forklift trucks, cranes and fire-extinguishing systems. In addition, the shop produces pipework, pressure tanks and other structural welding.

The head office for Phillips’ activities in Norway stands alongside the supply base for the platforms in the Greater Ekofisk Area.

basevirksomhet, engelsk,
In November 2004 ConocoPhillips opened its OOC (Onsore Operation Center) at Tananger. Photo: Kjetil Alsvik/ConocoPhillips
Published 29. July 2019   •   Updated 22. October 2019
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The oil and gas terminals

person By Norwegian Petroleum Museum
Oil and gas from the Greater Ekofisk Area is piped to Teesside in the UK and Emden in Germany respectively, where the pipeline terminals formed part of the field development. ConocoPhillips still operates the oil terminal in Teesside, while the facility in Emden has been taken over by Norwegian state-owned company Gassco.
— Gassterminalen i Emden. Foto: Husmo Foto/Norsk Oljemuseum
© Norsk Oljemuseum

Oil terminal in Teesside

Olje- og gassterminalene, engelsk,
Teesside terminal. Brian Henderson Thynne takes samples of refrigerated propane. Photo: Husmo Foto/Norwegian Petroleum Museum

The terminal at Teesside in north-east England receives oil and natural gas liquids (NGL) by pipeline from the Ekofisk field. It comprises stabilisation, NGL fractionation, storage tanks for crude oil and an export port.

After arriving through the Norpipe Oil line, crude and NGL are separated and the oil goes through a stabilisation process before reaching the 10 storage tanks, which each hold 750 000 barrels.

The NGLs go to the fractionation facility, with a daily capacity of 64 000 barrels, for separation into methane, ethane, propane, and normal and iso butane.

While the methane (natural gas) is used to fuel the plant, the other products (now known as liquefied petroleum gases – LPG) are made liquid by cooling and stored for export by sea.

One reason for the choice of Teesside as the landfall for the Ekofisk pipeline was the opportunity it offered to install deepwater quays.

The terminal has four of these, with those for crude oil able to handle tankers up to 150 000 deadweight tonnes. The LPG quays can accept carriers loading as much as 60 000 cubic metres.

Two of the crude oil quays lie on the main channel of the River Tees, while the others have been installed in dredged docks.

Gas terminal in Emden

olje- og gassterminalene, engelsk,
Photo: Husmo Foto/Norwegian Petroleum Museum

Gas arriving at the Emden terminal from the Ekofisk Complex enters nine parallel treatment trains for cleaning, metering and onward distribution to the buyers.

The North Sea gas is very clean, and needs only limited treatment to remove small amounts of sulphur compounds using an absorption process. Impure molecules from the gas accumulate on the surface of small particles, which act as filter spheres.

Each of the nine trains comprises four process columns and a process oven. The gas enters the top of a column and leaves through the base after passing through the filter spheres.

That leaves the gas ready for sale, and it is piped to the fiscal metering station before entering the buyer receiving pipelines and distribution network.

Three separate commercial pipeline systems connect to the terminal, operated by Ruhrgas, BEB and Gastransport Services (previously Gasunie) respectively. They pipe the gas away on behalf of the gas buyers.

The Norsea Gas Terminal in Emden was officially opened in September 1977 by Norwegian industry minister Bjartmar Gjerde and Phillips executive Gordon Goerin.

Ranking as the first gas sales deal for the Norwegian continental shelf, the Ekofisk agreement paved the way for later contracts covering other fields off Norway.

Regularity at the Emden terminal has been very high, with its own equipment never causing shutdowns. Maintenance takes place when other parts of the system are off line.

The terminal has a daily capacity of about 2.1 million cubic feet of gas per day.

Gas transport restructured

Norpipe AS owned the gas pipeline from Ekofisk to Emden until the transport system for the Norwegian offshore sector was restructured at 1 January 2003.

Norsea Gas A/S furthermore served as the formal owner of the Emden facility, with Phillips Petroleum and then ConocoPhillips as operator for both pipeline and terminal.

olje- og gassterminalene,
Teesside gas terminal. Photo: Husmo Foto/Norwegian Petroleum Museum

Since 2007, Norway’s state-owned Gassco company has been responsible for technical operation of the facilities on behalf of their owners.

That included operator responsibility for the H7 and B11 booster platforms along the gas pipeline, which were shut down in 2007 and 2013 respectively and have since been removed.

The Gassled partnership is a project collaboration embracing 10 companies which collective own large parts of the gas infrastructure on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS).

A substantial proportion of Norway’s gas deliveries to Germany continues to arrive at the Emden terminal, including the volumes piped from Ekofisk.

Preliminary planning for a new terminal in the German port began in 2011, with Gassled taking the investment decision for this development in the autumn of 2012.

Construction work began in the following year, with the new facility being built on an unused part of the existing terminal site.

The new terminal has not expanded export capacity. But its functionality is well adapted to future processing needs for fields in the Greater Ekofisk Area and other parts of the NCS sending gas through the Norpipe system.

It was officially opened on 24 May 2016 by Elisabeth Aspaker, the Norwegian government minister for the EU and the European Economic Area. That closed a chapter in Ekofisk’s history.

Source: ConocoPhillips Norge

Published 29. July 2019   •   Updated 12. October 2019
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